International Vegetarian Union (IVU)
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Dr. Jean Nussbaum
IVU Executive Committe 1953-67

9th World Vegetarian Congress 1935, Daugaard, Denmark

Our English delegates, Dr. CONSTANCE HURREN and Dr. LESLIE PRESSWOOD, took their part as interpreters, the former following Dr. Nussbaum's lecture with a translation into English greatly appreciated by the audience.

Dr. Jean Nussbaum, the only Frenchman at the Congress, was soon accorded a premier place among the speakers. As would be expected, he holds the view that vegetarianism should be scientific and capable of facing the world with adequate evidence of its superiority over flesh-eating habits. Serious in debate, the learned doctor was a charming raconteur after work was over, and, what is more, he was a good listener, appearing to enjoy the linguistic efforts of the English contingent

Vegetarianism and Health.
Dr. JEAN NUSSBAUM (France), took for his subject "Life and Health," and opened by saying:- A vegetarian to be truly healthy must have, not only a well nourished body, but also a well developed mind and soul. If man thought only of his body he committed a grave error. A boxer thought only of his muscles, a nun of her soul, and many teachers only of their intelligence. We must develop all three.

A visit to the Antwerp Zoological Gardens had led him to study the anatomy and physiology of animals, and he found that animals like the lion, the tiger and the panther had short intestines. With the carnivora, food remained only a short time in the intestines, an excellent arrangement for the meat-eater, for if the food remained longer it would putrefy. The intestines of man were, relatively, much longer than those of the carnivora, and the food, therefore, remained for a much longer time in the body. For that reason it was wise to select foods that did not putrefy quickly. The carnivorous animals that lived longest were those which retained the food the least time in the intestines, and those which ate coarse foods.

There was no animal equal to the camel. He was always at work but never tired - he was a vegetarian ! The horse was fleeter than any other animal - he was a vegetarian ! The elephant was the strongest of all animals - he was also a good-tempered animal - he was a vegetarian! You could play with an elephant, but not with a lion.

Dr. Nussbaum, in conclusion, said that for the attainment and maintenance of good health it was necessary to take into consideration the alimentary system and the food eaten.

He spoke of the necessity for a wisely selected, properly balanced diet, and condemned those foods which had been robbed of their nutritive elements in the processes of manufacture. In spite of modern scientific knowledge there was more illness than fifty years ago and this was due mainly to perverted dietetic habits. The future was with the vegetarian and we must continue to aim at making vegetarianism a world-wide movement.

From another report:

The principal speakers at Monday's session of the Congress were MR. MORITZ SCHNITZER (Czecho-Slovakia), DR. GUSTAV HECKMANN (Denmark) and DR. JEAN NUSSBAUM (France), the last-named of whom put in a strong plea for the vegetarian mode of living, as looked at from several points of view. Man, he said, was not merely possessed of a body, but mind and spirit also needed to be developed. Regarded even from the merely physical, it was obvious that man was fashioned on lines quite different from those of the carnivora, his intestines, for example, being ten times the length of his body whilst those of the flesh-eating animals were only about half as long in relation to theirs. Thus, man was ill-adapted to the consumption of such highly putrefactive material as flesh foods, which, of necessity, must remain much longer within his own system than was the case with the carnivora. Similarly with flesh-eating birds, such as the raven, which also had a short intestine. Certain types of temperament, too, were associated with certain kinds of diet, in which respect the lion and the elephant afforded a strong contrast. If one of his (the speaker's) patients should declare to him that her husband was cruel, and he should thereupon enquire as to the husband's diet, quite likely the answer would be that this consisted in large part of flesh foods, mustard, pepper, vinegar and alcohol, all of which must be regarded as highly inflammatory in their effects. "I, too," said Dr. Nussbaum, "should be bad-tempered if I tried to live on such foods!

A good vegetarian diet (said the speaker) must be well balanced. A good vegetarian was not one who just stopped eating flesh foods. He himself had had to teach some of his friends how to cook, and also how to choose a menu, and even how to buy foods. He thereupon caused amusement by describing a visit of his own to a shop where he had asked for rice, emphasing that lie wished to be served with good rice - to which the saleswoman replied, "We have excellent rice.' "No," said Dr. Nussbaum, refusing the commodity offered, "I want ordinary rice, just as it comes from the fields," and, after still more insistence, he found that at the establishment in question whole rice was quite unobtainable. "Ah! " said the genial saleswoman at last, now I understand. What you want is rice for the chickens and, in effect, said the speaker, that was perfectly true. Man knew well how to feed his animals but not how to feed himself. The fanner's wife knew how to feed her calves, but not how to feed her own children: she gave the cow the same kind of food that the forbears of the latter throve upon a thousand years ago. But what grievous changes had come about in man's own method of feeding in the meantime!

Concluding, the speaker urged that the vegetarian movement mght to become world-wide, the question of nutrition being, in fact, the most important of all. He felt, he said, that he had been speaking to an audience which well understood the essentials of the problem, and it behoved them all to press forward as speedily as possible the good work which had already been begun.

13th IVU World Vegetarian Congress 1953, Sigtuna, Sweden

Vice-Presidents . . . Dr. J. Nussbaum, France; . . .
Newly elected members to the Executive Committee are . . . Dr. Nussbaum (France)

photo right: Dr. Nussbaum on the left of the front row at the 1953 Congress


Apologies for absence were read from . . . Dr Nussbaum
Mr Kahler, in the absence of Dr.Nussbaum reported on the program made with the arrangements for the Paris Congress. He stated that La Cite/ Uniersitaire had been booked with the Rector's Permission. The main arrangements were in the hands of Dr.Nussbaum & M.Brobecker, who with Mme Brobecker formed Congress Secretariat. Good publicity was planned mainly due to Dr.Nussbaum's excellent connection with the press.
The following speakers were suggested together with the points of approach - . . . Dr.Nussbaum - France - Health


Apologies for absence were received from: - . . . Dr Jean Nussbaum,
A letter was read from Dr Nussbaum, complaining that the meeting was not constitutionally called, but it was unanimously agreed that the meeting had been properly called on instructions from two members of the Executive Committee; and the President had been duly notified before the notices were sent out.

15th World Vegetarian Congress 1957, Delhi/Bombay/Madras/Calcutta, India

Minutes of the Business Meetings, THE INTERNATIONAL VEGETARIAN UNION, The Sessions of The Indian Congress November 1957
Present: . . . , Dr.Jean Nussbaum,

Dr. J. Nussbaum, of France, taking his turn to convince the Press. (click for biger picture)

on 9 May 1958, International Vegetarian Union, MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

The meeting was held on 9th May 1958 at the Beverly Restaurant, Binney Street, London.
Apologies were received from Messrs . . . Nussbaum. . .

10th May 1959, International Vegetarian Union , Meeting of the Executive Committee at The Hague

Present: . . . Dr Nussbaum,

16th World Vegetarian Congress 1960, Hannover and Hamburg, Germany

Executive Committee: . . .the following were elected or re-elected: . . . Dr Jean Nussbaum (France),

17th World Vegetarian Congress 1963, Barcelona, Spain

Vice Presidents: (re-elected) . . . Dr Jean Nussbaum (France)
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: The following were re-elected:- . . . Dr Jean Nussbaum,

  • DANGERS OF MEATEATING - lecture by Dr. Nussbaum
    [from the general secretary's report] In the afternoon Dr. Jean Nussbaum gave one of his inimitable lectures on the dangers of eating meat-delivered in French under the Spanish title of Peligros Actuales al Corner Carne - however, talks were translated into three other languages
    [from talk on vegetarian catering] We agree with Dr. Nussbaum that the spiritual and practical aspects of vegetarianism are necessary to one another.

A Committee Meeting during the I.V.U. Congress. (from left): Mr Ian Vinkenborg, Dr Gordon Latto, the General Secretary, Mr Geo.Hiller, Dr Jean Nussbaum and the Marquis de St.Innocent.

28 June 1963, INTERNATIONAL VEGETARIAN UNION, Meeting of the Executive Committee (as above photo)

Present: . . . Dr Nussbaum,


Present: . . . Dr Nussbaum,

French Vegetarian Movement: Dr Nussbaum was authorised to study the matter of re-activating the French Vegetarian Movement and to suggest possible methods.

[1965 Congress] Dr Nussbaum thought most of the arrangements should be left to the British hosts but the General Secretary said that on this accasion the hosts wished the work in co-operation with the IVU Committee.


PRESENT . . . Dr Nussbaum,

FRENCH VEGETARIAN MOVEMENT Dr Nussbaum reported the situation in France where the are a number of independent groups. It was suggested that the President might seek the advice and co-operation of Mr Dextriet.

tentative programme [1965 Congress]: Fallacies in Diet - Dr Jean Nussbaum

30-31 October - 1 November 1964, Wilmslow, Cheshire, England, MEETING OF THE IVU EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

Present: . . . Dr Nussbaum
18th WORLD CONGRESS 1965 Programme and Speakers: The General Secretary sunmitted a list of speakers who had accepted invitations to speak. These included - . . . Dr Nussbaum,

18th World Vegetarian Congress 1965, Swanwick, England

The delightful Chapel in the grounds was used for short Meditations conducted by a member of a different denomi-nation each day at 7.30 a.m. The Ministrants were . . . Dr. Jean Nussbaum for the Seventh Day Adventists; . . .

[from the programme] The Importance of Whole Foods by Dr. Jean Nussbaum (France);

Vice Presidents [re-elected]: . . . Dr Jean Nussbaum (France), . . .
Committee: . . . Dr Jean Nussbaum, . . .

SCIVU: SCIENCE COUNCIL OF THE IVU - After discussion at a series of meetings the following members have agreed to apply for constitution as a Science Council:- . . . Dr. Jean Nussbaum (France). . . .

Minutes of Meetings of The Executive Committee, 28 August 1965, 18th World Congress. The Hayes, Swanwick, England

Present: . . .Dr Nussbaum, . . .
Switzerland: Mr Hiller reported that he had heard from Dr Eberlethat he wished to affiliate his society, the Schweitz Geallschaft fur Vegetraismus. The application was welcomed. Dr Nussbaum said there was also a Society in Geneva which might join the Union.

2nd September 1965, Meeting of Executive Committee 18th Congress

Present: . . . Dr Nussbaum,

10th May 1968, Meeting of the International Vegetarian Union Executive Committee, London

Dr. Nussbaum & Mr Egerod: the deaths of Dr Jean Nussbaum and Mr Oluf Egerod were reported and regret was expressed. The Secretary said he had sent sympathy to relatives.


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