- Hesiod (c. 8th century BC)
- Orphic Communities (c540 BC - ?)
- Pythagoras (?580-?500 BC) and
- Herodotus (484-425BC)
- Herodotus (link to Google Books) - trans. Rev. William Beloe 1831. P.236: The neck of land which stretches from the country of the Gindanes towards the sea is possessed by the Lotophagi who live entirely upon the fruit of the lotos
- Empedokles (?480-430BC)
- The Fragments of Empedocles (link to Questia.com) trans. W.E. Leonard Ph.D., Chicago, 1908. Part 2 says much about transmigration of souls and the Orphic/Pythagorean traditions.
- Socrates (?470-399 BC)
- Antisthenes (?445-365 BC)
- Plato (?427-?347 BC)
- Plato's Republic (link to archive.org) trans. Lewis Campbell M.A., LL.D., London, 1902. In Books II & III Plato (428-347 BC) develops the dietary ideas of Pythagoras.
- Diogenes (?412-?323 BC)
- Aristotle (384-322BC)
- Theophrastus (?372-?287BC)
- Epicurus (341-270BC)
- Cicero (Roman) (106-43 B.C.)
- Ovid (Publius Ovidius Naso) (43 BC
- AD 17)
- Español - Ovidio
- Ovid's Metamorphoses (link to archive.org) By Publius Ovidius Naso (43 BC - AD 17). This edition pub. London 1822. Book 15, p.516 is a biography of Pythagoras. p.519: 'He first forbid animal food to be served up at the tables
- Seneca (c.5 BC - AD 65)
- Seneca's Morals (link to archive.org) - by Lucius Annaeus Seneca (c.5 BC - AD 65) - trans Sir Roger L'Estrange, New York, c.1870. "I gave over eating of flesh", p110
- Plutarch (Greek) (c.AD 46-c.120)
- Plutarch's Morals Vol.5 (link to archive.org) by Plutarch (c.AD 46-c.120)- edited by W. W. Goodwin Ph.D, Harvard, 1878. Includes the essay 'Of Eating Flesh'
- Plotinus (Roman) (?205-?270)
- Porphyry (Greek) (233 -
- Iamblichus (Greek) (c.250-c.325)
- Emperor Julianus 331-363 A.D.
- Christian and Western Literature 5th Century to 16th Century
- Animal Minds and
Human Morals: The Origins of the Western Debate by Richard Sorabji
- early Greek/Christian philosophy.