International Vegetarian Union (IVU)
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Europe: late 19th Century
Howard Williams (1837-1931)

Howard Williams was an English humanitarian and vegetarian, author of the book The Ethics of Diet (1883), a historical anthology of vegetarian writings, which includes excerpts from Ovid, Seneca, Plutarch, Montaigne, Mandeville, Pope, Voltaire, Rousseau, St. Pierre, Oswald, Shelley, Michelet, Lamartine and many other authors. His work was one of the first books on the History of Vegetarianism and was read by Gandhi and Tolstoy (who wrote an introduction for the Russian edition).

A new edition of this work is now available by the University of Illinois Press (2003), with a new introduction by Carol J. Adams - see right: