Europe: late 19th Century
A collection of articles:
Note - these are not just lists of 'famous vegetarians' - they are people with a view on the subject, and the articles explain whether they put those veiws into practice.
- Alphonse de Lamartine (1790-1869)
- Les Confidences: Confidential Disclosures (link to archive.org) 1857 edition. p.60: 'to kill animals for the purpose of feeding on their flesh is one of the most deplorable and shameful infirmities of the human state'.
- Georg Friedrich Daumer (1800-1875)
- Gustav von Struve (1805-1870)
- Prof. F. W. Newman (1805-1897) - President of the Vegetarian Society (UK)
- Sir Isaac Pitman (1813-1897)
- Sir Isaac Pitman, his life and labors by Benn Pitman (brother) 1902 (link to complete book on archive.org)
- The life of Sir Isaac Pitman (inventor of phonography) by Alfred Baker, 1908 (link to complete book on archive.org) - invented phonography, Pitman shorhand etc., and was a Vice President of The Vegetarian Society
- Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
- Eduard Baltzer (1814-1887)
- Other Propagators in Germany
- Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy (1828-1910)
- Español - Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy
- Élisée Reclus (1830-1905)
- Sir Edwin Arnold (1832-1904)
- Wilhelm Bush (1832-1908) - famous german poet and drawer. source: go vegetarin magazine; common knowledge. he said: "true human culture exists only when not just eating men but any form of consuming meat is considered as cannibalism."
- Howard Williams (1837-1931)
- Edward Carpenter (1844-1929)
- Civilisation; its cause and cure, and other essays (PDF 8mb) by Edward Carpenter (1844-1929) first pub.1889. This edition 1921. p.217: human . . . knows at once its kinship with all the other forms.'
- Towards Democracy (PDF 12mb) by Edward Carpenter, 1892. p.22 'Do you batten like a ghoul on the dead corpses of animals?
- Anna Kingsford M.D. (1846-1888)
- Annie Besant (1847-1933)
- The Wedgwood Family (1870-1913)
- Lilli Lehmann (1848-1929)
- My Path Through Life (PDF 26mb) autobiography of the Wagnerian opera soprano, 1914. pp.400-1: 'I owe the complete cessation of my agitation before my public appearances and in other affairs of life to ... vegetarianism'.
- Henry Salt (1851-1939)
- A Plea for Vegetarianism (PDF 2mb) - by Henry Salt, pub.1886. The book that Gandhi referred to in his autobiography.
- Animals' Rights, Considered in Relation to Social Progress (plain text 282k) by Henry Salt, London, 1894
- Arnold Hills (1857-1927)
- Hugo Wolf (1860-1903)
- Hugo Wolf (PDF 36mb) by Ernest Newman, pub. London, 1907 p.23: 'So hard pressed was he indeed that for a while he took to vegetarianism as the cheapest way of living.' [it probably has as much to do with Wagner as poverty for both Mahler and Wolf]
- Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
- Gustav Mahler : a study of his personality and work (PDF 9mb) by Paul Stefan, pub. New York, c.1913. p.18: he was at that time [early 1880s] both an abstainer and a vegetarian. Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
- Dr.Josiah Oldfield MA, DCL, MRCS, LRCP (1863-1953)
- Paul Troubetzkoy (1866-1938)
- Hiltl Vegi in Zurich oldest vegetarian restaurant in Europe 1898- (EVU)
Some articles about the origins of the Vegetarian Society UK, and the beginnings of organised vegetarianism:
- 1847-1997 Vegetariansm - A Cause for Celebration - 150 years of the Vegetarian Society UK (EVU News 1997)
- 150 Years of Vegetarianism (European Congress 1997)
- The Vegetarian Society of the UK: 150 Years in the Forefront of Vegetarian Campaigning (IVU News 1998)
- Marketing the Message: The Changing Face of Vegetarianism in the United Kingdom (World Congress 1999)
- Neither phoenix nor fad (World Congress 2002)
- Philosophy of diet - or a philosophy of life? (World Congress 2002)
The first attempt at an international organisation:
- The Vegetarian Federal Union (1889-1909)
IVU Manager's blogs:
London Vegetarian Association, 1850s – the world’s first ‘vegan society’
Prof. Francis W. Newman and the attempted ‘vegan’ revolution of 1871
The First Vegan Cookbook - New York 1874
Gustav Schlickeysen – 1875 German vegan, raw-foodist, fruitarian
Was Vitamin B12 a problem for 19th century ‘vegans’?
The Vegetus Myth - an attempt to pretend that vegetarians didn’t just eat vegetation.
Henry Salt - the father of animal rights
Complete Old Books:
The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger, August, 1884 (link to archive.org) - The Vegetarian Society (Manchester), one complete issue - the first section of a large book of other misc. articles.
Pamphlets V, 1836-1895 (link to archive.org) - includes 'On Certain Fallacies' by Henry Salt
The Vegetarian (html pages) extracts from the weekly newspaper published in London, 1888-1903.