International Vegetarian Union (IVU)
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15th World Vegetarian Congress 1957
Delhi/Bombay/Madras/Calcutta, India

(Formula used for tinned nut-roasts sold in Health Shops)

(There are many ways of combining the body-builders, nuts, eggs, milk, cheeses, with vegetables and cooked cereals in nut-loafs, croquettes etc. This formula takes more trouble and time, but produces a product that can be tinned or kept some time and used as desired.)

Body-Builders: Nuts flaked or ground fine
Whole-grains: Ground or rolled to meal or flour consistency
Liquid: *Brown or Yeast Extract Stock; Dissolve in one cup water 1 tablespoon level autolyzed or brewer's yeast extract or powder; or any liquid flavoured to taste; or milk.
(*This yeast extract goes under many trade names - Vegex, Savita, Marmite, Yeastrel, Gravyite, Stox, etc. If powder is used, be sure it is Brewer's Yeast powder.)

Standard Pattern: By weight - One-Six-Six Makes 8 tins each serving 12 people


One Pound Cereal Mix

8oz Corn or Wheat Meal
2oz Whole Grain Rye Flour
2 oz. Gluten Flour
2 oz. Soy Bean or other pulse Flour
2 oz. Whole Wheat Flour

This mix is only
suggestive. Try
other cereals
using rolled oats,
all gluten flour,
more soy flour, etc.

Nut-Meal, as above

6 lbs. Cashews OR peanuts ("groundnuts")


Liquid, as above

6 lbs. or pints ( a pint is about two cups)


Method: Part of the thickening power in this formula rests in the cashew themselves. Other nuts can be substituted if the proportion of cereal mix is decreased or increased according to the thickening power of the other nut. The following chart will show a suggestive guide for substitutions. The mix should be a fairly stiff batter (settling slowly into pan). Let stand for ten minutes to determine stiffness. If not stiff enough, an ounce or two more of the cereal mix should be added. If it seems too stiff, dilute with more liquid. Try the standard pattern given above first by WEIGHT. Buy the nuts unroasted. If a white nut-roast is desired, blanch the nuts by pouring boiling water over and slipping skins off. Dry first before grinding or pounding.

Pack in cans or turkshead (angel-food) tins to not less than 3-1/2 inches from top; let mix rise slightly in steamer and then cover with three thicknesses of waxed paper and if necessary tie to keep steam from dripping down over top of roast. Steam in Pressure Cooker one hour at 15 pounds, or in regular steamer for 3 hours. Then dry out in 250° oven one hour or until brown. Though not quite as good a consistency, this mix can be baked in a 250° oven for from 2-1/2 to 3 hours, with no steaming first. This roast can be sliced and served hot, though if allowed to cool and then reheated in oven or with a small amount of fat in pan, it is of better consistency. It is also delicious simply sliced when cool and served. Do not mix with liquid sauces before serving.

Nut Substitution Chart : For every pound of nuts used other than cashews:
Change the quantity of the cereal base as follows:

  Add Omit
Almonds 1.5 oz. (0.25 cup)  
Brazils 4 oz. (0.67 cup)  
Chestnuts (Dried)   7.5 oz (1.25 cup)
Chestnuts (Fresh)   4 oz (0.67 cup)
Filberts 2 oz. (0.5 cup)  
Hazel Nuts 3 oz. (0.5 cup)  
Peanuts (Groundnuts) same as cashews  
Pecans 2 oz. (0.5 cup)  
Pinenuts or Pignolias 4 oz. (0.67 cup)  
Pistachios 1.5 oz. (0.25 cup)  
Walnuts (Black) 3 oz. (0.5 cup)  
Walnuts (English) 2 oz. (0.6 cup scant)  
Mixed Nuts 2 to 3 oz. (scant to 0.5 cup approx.  

Soya Beans (Cooked, Drained, Ground) in place of nuts : Pattern 1-1.5-1

That is every pound needs 2/3rds pound cereal or gluten flour and one pound or pint only of liquid.

Cheese (American, Swiss, Soy Cheese) grated or ground : Pattern 1-2-2 minus

Every pound needs half a pound cereal or gluten flour and one pint or pound liquid.

Cheese (Cottage-Drained) Pattern 1-2-1 plus: every pound needs half a pound cereal or gluten flour but only a cup plus of liquid.