|International Vegetarian Union (IVU)|
Vegetarian Congress 1893
From the Vegetarian Messenger (Manchester), August, 1893:
INTERNATIONAL VEGETARIAN CONGRESS, CHICAGO -
Friday, July 21st, a meeting was held at the Vegetarian Restaurant, Fountain Street, Manchester, to welcome home the Rev. Jas. Clark, Mr. Wm. E. A. Axon, and Mr. Ernest Clark, the deputation sent from The Vegetarian Society to the International Vegetarian Congress at Chicago. Mr. Peter Foxcroft presided, and amongst those present, besides the delegates, were Mrs. Foxcroft, Mrs. Axon, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. Harrison, Mr. and Mrs. Chapman, Mr. and Mrs. Tongue, Mr. and Mrs. Roberts, Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Duncan, Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Greenhalgh, Mr. and Mrs. Johnsone and Mrs. Holt, Mrs. Booth, Mr. E. Dawson King, Mr. and Mrs. Broadbent, Mr. Petchell, Mr. Knight, and other friends.
The CHAIRMAN said they were met to welcome home the gentlemen who had been, as delegates from The Vegetarian Society, to the Vegetarian Congress, held at the World's Fair, Chicago, and to hear an account of their journey and proceedings. He first called upon-
Mr. Jos. KNIGHT (the secretary), who mentioned the names of many friends who would like to have been present, but who were absent on were otherwise engaged. Letters had been received from Mr. and Mrs. Owen, of Oswestry; Mr. A. C. Imrie, of Manchester; and Mr. Jones, Treasurer of the Liverpool Vegetarian Society.
Mr. ERNEST C. CLARK said that a visit to America was a big theme for the limited time at his disposal. He was very much obliged to The Vegetarian Society for having given him an opportunity of visiting that wonderful country. The delegates set off in good spirits, and when on board the Alaska they made friends of the purser and steward, and were exceedingly well catered for during the whole of the voyage. There was a separate table for Vegetarian meals, to which ten sat down; but two of them were doubtful about Vegetarianism; one of these two, however, became converted before the voyage was finished. Another convert was made on the return voyage, in the person of a gentleman who had accompanied the delegates throughout their trip, and who found his health had been improved by the change of diet, and that he was better able to stand the rough and tumble of the voyage. Vegetarians would be comforted by knowing that the delegates were not much troubled by sea-sickness. He (Mr. Clark) never missed a meal or lacked an appetite. There were many interesting events on the voyage. They got acquainted with many of the passengers, who found, probably to their astonishment, that Vegetarian diet did not nourish melancholy or silence at meals; indeed, there was more jocularity at their table than at any other in the saloon. From that point of view they did the cause good, by showing that they need not be ascetics because they were Vegetarians. The eight Vegetarians did considerable propagandism amongst the 200 saloon passengers. There was much conversation on the subject every day in the saloon and on deck. One of their party (Mr. Dixon, of Cambridge) was amusingly aggressive, and carried the war into the enemy's camp. He would buttonhole any man and ask if he were a Vegetarian, and if not, why not? He did this on board, in the trains, everywhere, and it led to some most amusing scenes, while serving the good cause. After a pleasant journey they arrived in New York, and had little difficulty about provisions at their hotel, though they did not fare so sumptuously as on board the Alaska. Passing to Philadelphia they felt quite at home; friends provided for them so well that life passed most pleasantly. The delegates spoke at meetings, and had many pleasant chats with members of Mr. Clubb's church. Next day they departed for Washington. At Washington occurred one of the most pleasing incidents of the trip. A deputation invited them to a reception at the Wimodaughsis Club; consisting entirely of lady members, and deriving its name from a composition of the first letters of wife, mother, daughter, sister. Some seventy ladies and a few invited gentlemen received them at the Club, and an extremely pleasant evening was spent in general conversation and speeches. There was one family, named Saunders, of five especially fine children, life Vegetarians, and the lady who got up the reception, Miss English, was a charming specimen of good breeding and pure living, with plenty of "go" in her, and capacity for work. Next day the party visited the U.S. Agricultural Department, and were introduced to many ladies, who were almost converted to Vegetarianism. He found it rather embarrassing to be introduced to thirty ladies at one time. After a pleasant stay at Washington they set off on their long journey to Chicago, which lasted a day and a half. They had a little misgiving about provisions, but were agreeably surprised on that score, and made capital dinners in the train from cracked wheat and cream-a popular and right good dish- fried potatoes, an omelette, salad, waffles, with maple syrup (something like a double crumpet), finishing with strawberries and cream. Luncheon consisted of fruit, which was brought round at intervals, and comprised bananas, apples, grapes, &c. The bananas were half as big again as ours and cost less-three for 5 cents, 2½d. A pine cost 15 cents, 7½d.; other fruit in proportion. Fruit was plentiful and generally very cheap, and it was a great convenience to Vegetarians. A noticeable feature at the railway refreshment rooms was the ample provision of pie. The Americans were great eaters of pie-apple pie, currant pie, &c. -with custard. For a moderate sum you got a tremendous chunk of very good pie. Everybody seemed to go in for pie. He tried it on several occasions and found it satisfactory. He left his fellow-travellers to describe the Vegetarian Congress at Chicago. He was delighted with their meetings, which showed that Vegetarianism was in a healthy condition there. He was pleased with the people, and thought them a fine lot of folks, taking them all round. The number of Vegetarians surprised him, and some of them were very enthusiastic. The papers read were of very great interest, and of a character that no Congress need be ashamed of; they would do honour to any Congress in the world. They had difficulty sometimes in convincing people that Vegetarians would have nothing to do with flesh meat. In the train bound for Niagara they asked the steward for beans without the usual pork. "What, dry beans?" "Yes." "All right." When the beans came they looked rather greasy. "What is this?" "Just a little grease, only grease, no pork in it!" From Niagara he went to Toronto, Montreal, Saratoga, and Boston, back to New York. The visit demonstrated that any Vegetarian, who could afford the time and money for a trip to the States, would find no difficulty in getting catered for. The delegates aroused such an interest in the cause wherever they travelled as would not soon fade away. They had done much to pave the way for a great advance of the better diet as soon as people were ready to adopt it. He felt sure that Vegetarian restaurants would be established through the visit. They impressed the point very strongly that the best way to advance our cause was to do it in this practical way, and that no amount of discussion and argument would be so convincing to the general public as providing nourishing, appetising, and economical dishes at Vegetarian restaurants. He hoped and believed that the result of this visit would be a great enhancement of our cause on the other side of the Atlantic. Mr. Clark concluded by again thanking his Vegetarian friends for the opportunity of visiting such a glorious country. (Applause.)
Mr. WILLIAM E. A. AXON next gave his experience. As Mr. Clark had already given an outline of the journey, he needed to say nothing more about the voyage. On reaching New York he was asked by friends if he would like to see the city slums, which abound there as in all great cities. He thanked his friends and declined, saying he saw enough sin and suffering at home, and wished to carry away pleasant memories of America. At New York they met some Vegetarian friends and had interesting conversations with them. Two of these Vegetarian friends were Englishmen who had settled in the United States. They had to encounter great hardships at first; but they gave the impression, which was confirmed by what he saw, that persons willing to work would find in America almost unlimited possibilities of fortune and usefulness. The first thing that struck him in New York was the badness of the pavement; nothing could be worse. The paving of one of the greatest cities in the world would disgrace a tenth-rate town in Lancashire; yet an American assured him that the money provided, if honestly spent, would pave the streets with marble. America has to deal with the difficult problem of municipal corruption. We must not boast, because our own corporations were just as corrupt at one time. They were much impressed with the beauty and immensity of New York. They went to the top of the World newspaper building, the tower of which is 370 feet high-90 feet higher than the Manchester Town Hall. The ascent was by a lift, which is as free to all as the side walk. From the top of the tower the great city could be seen stretched at their feet, with the Hudson river, the harbour, and the statue of Liberty. It was an amazing spectacle viewed from that enormous height. They were impressed by the beauty of the principal buildings and the active life of the city. The transition to Philadelphia was interesting and pleasant from the greater sense of repose and homely feeling. New York was a city to admire. Philadelphia was a place in which one could live an orderly, sober, home life. The friends in that city treated them as brothers, and a very interesting time was spent there. They were taken to Fairmount Park, which was the largest city park in the world, covering 290 acres. Alexandra Park, the largest in Manchester, contained only 60 acres. Many of the streets in Philadelphia were broad and lined by beautiful trees and fine buildings. Excepting Boston, Philadelphia was the American city round which cluster the most interesting historical memories. It was the birthplace of American liberty and the seat of its first Congress. They saw Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence was signed, Carpenter's Hall and Franklin's grave, which to him was profoundly interesting. They went next to Washington, which has been called the city of magnificent distances, and he thought it was the best laid-out city in the world. The streets were wide, and were shaded by 120,000 trees. There were lovely parks, noble monuments, and great buildings belonging to the Government; museums, &c. They saw the Capitol, the White House, and other public buildings of great interest. They were pleased with the reception given by friends in Washington, and remembered especially the memorable night at the Wimodaughsis Club, one of the most characteristic institutions of America. On leaving Washington for Chicago they had a long railway journey of over a 1,000 miles, during which they travelled through a number of cities, and touched the black band of the South-a part of Virginia; thus they had a sight of much variety of American life and scenery. At Chicago their chief business was with the Vegetarian Congress. He thought that all who were present, or read a report of the proceedings, would agree that the Congress would be of great service to the cause. The attendance was good and the reports in the Press very friendly. In Chicago and many other places they found people who had some previous experience of Vegetarianism or were friendly towards it. Of the Exhibition itself, the "White City," it was impossible to speak in adequate terms. It was like a city of palaces, so numerous and beautiful were the buildings. Each of the 49 States and Territories had a separate building or State House, independent of the great structures devoted to the special purposes of the Exhibition. There was a large building devoted by the Government to objects belonging to the nation, one to Agriculture, in which they saw many exhibits of interest. Other palatial structures were dedicated to the liberal arts, the work of women, and the training of children; in fact, every form of human industry and culture was represented at the World's Fair. These buildings were exceedingly beautiful, and it seemed a pity that so many of them would only have a temporary existence. Some of the buildings were of marble and solidly built, the rest were framed wooden-skeletons stuccoed outside. The whole display of beautifully-designed and ornamented buildings, and the lovely grounds around, combined to form a scene like a dream of fairyland. The exhibits were much like those in other exhibitions, but the Americans may claim that they have struck out an entirely fresh line in the architectural beauty and symmetrical disposition of the buildings containing the exhibits. Chicago was a fine large city with lovely parks, but he would not like to live in Chicago, as the rate of life there was something tremendous, the stress of business being much greater than in Manchester or London. Chicago was a wonderful city, but not a comfortable place to live in. They also saw Niagara, a scene of sublimity and loveliness which baffled human powers of description. At first sight the great Falls might seem a little disappointing, but the nearer you got to them, and the longer you contemplated the mighty waters, the more they grew upon you, and the more their beauty and magnificence became impressed upon the mind. It was a scene no one could adequately describe; it must be seen to be realised. It was said that to see and understand America and her people properly, they must be studied not in the great cities, but in the smaller towns or cities, as they were called; it was in this way that American progress and civilisation could best be judged. He had had an opportunity of seeing something of one small town which had a special interest to him, and probably to the friends present. It was called Battle Creek, and was in the State of Michigan, about 170 miles from Chicago. He and his wife left Chicago about seven on Saturday night, and arrived at Battle Creek on Sunday morning. Battle Creek was not far from the shores of Lake Michigan; and contained about 20,000 inhabitants. The town was lighted by electricity, and the street cars were driven by the same power. Compared with American towns, ours in England had made small progress in the use of electricity. His object in visiting Battle Creek was to see his friend Dr. Kellogg, and his famous hygienic institution-the Sanatarium. The west end of Battle Creek was wholly inhabited by members of the denomination of Seventh Day Adventists, who kept the seventh day holy, like the Jews. They had various institutions, including a College, Hospital, and a large printing establishment, where books and periodicals were printed in various European languages. His main interest centered in the Sanatarium, essentially a Vegetarian Institution. Dr. Kellogg had received the best medical education in America, and, after graduating there, studied in Continental and English Medical Schools, and with Mr. Lawson Tait, of Birmingham. Dr. Kellogg enjoyed the reputation of being the best surgeon in the United States. The Sanatarium was not called a Vegetarian Institution, and on one of the two bills of fare, for new corners, there were usually two flesh-meat dishes, but as soon as patients had been diagnosed by Dr. Kellogg, they were presented a diet which was exclusively Vegetarian. The 150 nurses, and the whole of the staff, medical men, and bath-men, numbering 300, were Vegetarians; and the entire establishment was worked on Vegetarian and teetotal lines. Dr. Kellogg had followed a wise course in avoiding some of the stumbling blocks which had hindered the progress of hygienic institutions in other places. Dr. Kellogg did not call himself after any medical school, but used every curative means likely to be beneficial. He used every kind of bath-Turkish, vapour, sun and air, electric, etc. There were extensive chemical and physiological laboratories, and the greatest care was taken in analysing food, and in the use of appliances for helping and testing the progress of the patients. In the anthropometric department the physical condition of every muscle, organ, and function in the body was tested and registered; the condition and progress of each patient was known exactly day by day. The Sanatarium was pleasantly situated; and the lovely grounds, as was usual in the parks of America, were not railed off. At night the electric light gave the place the appearance of a fairy palace. The number of patients and visitors was immense. People lived at a great rate in America, and they went to the Sanatarium as the best place to rest and recuperate. The Sanatarium began about thirty years ago, with one frame house. Dr. Kellogg took charge of the institution nineteen years ago, and he now has the entire control. The Adventists laid great stress upon hygiene; they eschewed alcohol, flesh meat, tobacco, condiments, and even tea and coffee. They carried on missionary work in various parts of the world, including England, and everywhere; and in everything they taught obedience to the laws of health. A large number of Adventists abstained from flesh, and it was probable that in a few years the whole of their 50,000 members would be Vegetarians. Dr. Kellogg was one of the most modest and agreeable of men, and combined superior scientific and general culture with high moral purpose. The doctor spoke at the Chicago Congress, and impressed the delegates by his brain power and desire to do good. Mr. Axon next spoke of the opening for Vegetarian propaganda amongst the coloured people of America. Vegetarians in England and the United States sympathised much with this interesting race of people, and were ready to hold out to them the hand of friendship and brotherhood. In Chicago they were invited to an "informal" reception of about fifty so-called "coloured" persons, some of whom were as black as ebony, others were as white as Europeans, who desired to show their English friends evidence of the progress made by the negro race since the days of slavery. Their best representative was the Hon. Fredk. Douglass, now in his 77th year, who was born a slave, the son of a slave mother and white father. Douglass taught himself to read, escaped from slavery, and visited Manchester, in 1846, of which place and of some of its people he retained pleasant memories. Douglass had been twice Minister to Liberia, also Registrar of Deeds in the district of Columbia, and this year he had purchased the estate on which he was born as a slave Douglass was the Nestor of negro Americans, and a most remarkable man. Amongst this interesting company were negro doctors, clergymen, lawyers, and writers, including Mrs. Harper, the novelist and poetess, who has done good work in promoting temperance and education amongst her own race. After several of the company had spoken and read pieces of their composition, he (Mr. Axon) showed how the Vegetarian system, which helped to break down distinctions between rich and poor, and promoted friendship and brotherhood between all classes, would be a help to them. The sympathy we have felt for this oppressed race augurs a friendly reception amongst them to a propaganda of Vegetarianism. He mentioned this to illustrate the thesis that all good causes helped one another. Vegetarianism would help to eradicate the caste feeling and break down the social distinctions which are injurious to the best interests of white and black. Ho told his coloured friends that on the gravestone of blind Henry Fawcett, in a lovely churchyard near Cambridge, there was engraved this verse from the Bible : "Speak to the people that they go forward." So he urged them to go forward in the name of education, of righteousness, of temperance, of abstinence, and of justice. He said the same to all who are working in every department of social reform, "Speak to the people that they go forward"; and if they did that in the right spirit the gates of hell should not prevail against them. (Applause.)
The Rev. Jas. CLARK proposed to take up the subject from the city of New York. Their story was about Vegetarianism in America, which they were sent as a deputation to promote and report about, and anything else they might say was incidental to the main purpose. In New York he looked up an old friend who formerly resided, in Manchester, the Rev. Dr. Gottheil, a Rabbi of the first Hebrew congregation. He found the doctor living in Madison Avenue, in a house of good proportions, for which he paid a rent of £500, including taxes, and the doctor said he had as convenient a house in Manchester for £50 a year. Upon the Vegetarian question Dr. Gottheil said he was the same hardened sinner as when he lived in Manchester, and that during his fifteen years' residence in New York he had met with only one Vegetarian, who was of his own race and faith. The doctor did not know there was a Vegetarian Society in New York, and that a deputation from the society had met the English delegates on their arrival. Our Vegetarian friends in Washington were mostly employed in the Department of Agriculture, under the United States Government. English Vegetarians have urged that our Government ought to do something to promote the growth for food of various substances which were now neglected. The Department of Agriculture in Washington existed for that purpose. The delegates went through the grounds and gardens, and were supplied with a few plants. These were sent to their hotel, and he had the pleasure of distributing his specimens amongst friends who would be able to plant and tend them. There was a tea plant, a coffee plant, a vanilla, and a camphor plant. This gave an idea of the kind of service performed by this Department of Agriculture. Plants were cultivated in the gardens for economical purposes, and not for mere ornament. Any person who had a useful purpose in view could obtain from this department the best plants and seeds without charge for propagation in any part of the country. Those thirty ladies mentioned by his son were all engaged in the Agricultural Department, sorting and packing seeds for distribution. It might be well to renew our appeal to the home authorities in this direction, taking as a text what is done in America. He would like to add a few words about their visit to Philadelphia. At New York the delegates were met by the Rev. H. S. Clubb, .formerly editor of the Vegetarian Messenger, and private secretary to Mr. Jas. Simpson, the first president of our society. Mr. Clubb was now the minister of the Bible Christian Church, in Philadelphia. He went to New York to welcome the delegates, and accompanied them to Philadelphia, where they were met at the railway station, which they call the depot, by a deputation from the Bible Christian Church, and escorted to the schoolroom, where a tasteful and pleasant luncheon was provided, and a hearty welcome given by the assembled company. The delegates had the pleasure of individually addressing those assembled, and under their guidance had an exceedingly pleasant visit to Fairmount Park, which is twelve miles long, and a sail in a steamer up a beautiful creek. The delegates engaged in a most interesting ceremony in Philadelphia, in which he was called upon to take the leading part, and his colleagues took their share. This was the planting of a tree near the church as a memorial of their visit, and a reminder of the bond of union existing between Vegetarian friends in England and America. He put the tree into position in the hole dug for it, placed a shovelful of earth to the roots, and the same was done by Mr. Axon, Mr. E. Clark, Mr. Hanson, Mr. Dixon, and Mr. Reeves, and last and best by Mrs. Axon. This pleasing ceremony having been satisfactorily accomplished, and a substantial dinner disposed of, they were ready for a service in the church, where he gave a discourse which he thought suitable to their needs and for the good of the common cause; whilst Mr. Axon disported himself in oratory at a large meeting of the Peace Society. There was another social meeting with their friends, who were most agreeable people, so that the delegates brought away the pleasantest recollections of them and their hospitable entertainment. Washington seemed to him to be the best ordered city and the best laid out of any in the Union. He knew no city to be compared to it. Washington throughout surpassed the best parts of London. He said with sadness that this superiority seemed to be due to the fact that there was no representative municipal government in the city of Washington. In that respect it was unlike any other city in the United States, the inhabitants having surrendered their franchise for the purpose of being the capital of the country. The people of Washington did not vote in the election of the President, nor for any State Legislature or municipal offices, for there were none. The people did not live in a State, but in the District of Columbia, and they had no State rights. The object of this arrangement was to preserve the Capital from the influence of political feeling, but he could not say how far it had achieved this object. The delegates then proceeded to their destination-the city of Chicago. Mr. Axon had described their ascent to the top of the World at New York. The World building was seventeen storeys high; but there was an erection at Chicago which put the World into the shade. This was Freemason's Hall, which was 21 storeys high. People were lifted up 19 storeys in the elevator, and mounted the other two storeys on foot. While in Chicago they stayed at the Bible Institute, which was under the direction of Mr. Moody, whose Christian work was like leaven in the city of Chicago, which was so much given up to money-grubbing. There were legitimate industries there, but the drink business seems to rule the whole city. The Press was in great fear of those who carried on the drink business. He attended for three days a Temperance Congress in the Art Institute, and the notice taken of that Congress by the Press was very summary and unfriendly. He (Mr. Clark) being one of the people who had come from a distance to the Congress, the Press thought it a suitable occasion to present him in caricature, representing him with a drunkard's nose. This was in return for a thoroughgoing address he had delivered upon the temperance question. A few days later the Vegetarian Congress met, and towards this the Press took a very favourable attitude, giving reports two or three times as long as to the larger congress on teetotalism, and the notices were decidedly of a friendly character, and the caricature they gave of his son was by no means unfriendly. It was curious to observe that the cause of their friendliness to us, as they expressed it themselves, showed how thoroughly business-like the Press of Chicago was. They. said, "It was true that Chicago was the great centre of the pig-killing industry, and the collecting and killing of cattle. We had a great trade with all parts of the world in those two articles of commerce, but we were also the greatest depot in the world for the collection and shipment of grains and fruits. We needed customers to buy these articles, and consequently our Vegetarian friends were very welcome to call attention to those commodities we supplied so abundantly in Chicago, and which served their purpose so well." One thing that occurred at the Bible Institute was worth mentioning. Visitors were taken daily by a conductor to see the sights of Chicago. In the morning it was announced that Mr. So and So would attend any gentlemen who desired to see the cattle lair. The second morning Mr. Studd, the famous cricketer, said that some of the gentlemen who went did not seem to be pleased with the sight, and one said he would not go again for a good many dollars. The guide said they could see beasts without seeing the killing, and a Vegetarian friend present called out "You ought to be made to see the whole concern." He did not know how many of the party had the courage to witness the sticking. As to the Vegetarian Congress at Chicago he was able to compare it with the International Vegetarian Congress held in London, and the Congress held in Cologne; but for the importance of the people who attended, the excellence of the papers read, and the notice taken of the proceedings, the other congresses were not to be compared with the one held at Chicago. A large number of ladies came, not merely to see and listen, but were deeply interested, and some of them took part in the discussion. There were four or five lady doctors present. He got so accustomed to meeting lady doctors, that when a friend wanted to introduce him to a lady, he used to ask "Is she a doctor?" At one of the meetings the president was Mrs. Richardson, a daughter of the famous Professor Agassiz. Mrs. Richardson belonged to the Theosophists, an intellectual body of considerable numbers in Chicago. She had one curious fad. Seeing a cloak near her, and thinking it belonged to her, he said-" May I have the pleasure of putting on your cloak?" She said-" It is not my cloak, I never wear a cloak. I think people who are intellectual ought to get above the conditions of heat and cold, wet and dry." His response was-" I am a long way off that yet" This seemed to be part of the theosophical theory, and no doubt it was very convenient. The friends of every good cause might learn a lesson from the patient attention at the Chicago meetings. The people came to the meetings, morning, af ernoon, and evening. At English meetings, about nine o'clock, people began to dribble out, but at Chicago they sat listening to Vegetarian addresses till nearly eleven o'clock. There was some earnestness about people who would do that, letting their own convenience wait upon their attachment and devoted helpfulness to the cause. One result of the Vegetarian propaganda at Chicago was the receipt of a letter asking for details as to the way of getting up and conducting Vegetarian restaurants. They meant to have a good Vegetarian restaurant in Chicago, and they wanted to know if we could send them a cook. He and his son had a pleasant detour for a day and a half across Lake Ontario to Toronto and down the river St. Lawrence, through some of the most delightful scenery in the world-the Thousand Isles. These beautiful Isles vary in size, some were no bigger than a table, others large enough for a house and garden. They are much frequented, especially in the hot weather, for the pleasures of bathing and boating. The houses were nearly all built of wood, and painted in bright colours. Mr. Clark gave a graphic description of their visit to the wonderful Falls of Niagara, and the Cave of the Wind. When asked what he thought of the latter, he replied-" I would not have missed it for £20; and I would not go again for £2." He thought that was about the general estimate. They could get first rate meals at the Clifton House, but the price corresponded. He had received a letter from Mr. Clubb, enclosing his certificate of membership of the Vegetarian Society of America. Mr. Clubb expressed the hope that they would be able to pay another an longer visit, and mentioned that the hemlock fir tree planted by the delegates was looking green. This letter indicated that their visit was held in kindly remembrance by their good friends in Philadelphia. He did not think the visit could be described in suitable terms to show the influence it was likely to exert upon the progress of Vegetarianism in America. They found people well disposed towards them, and he believed their presence, counsel, and arguments would leave a lasting impression upon those who assembled to meet them. (Applause).
On the motion of Mr. Chapman, seconded by Mr. Harrison, and supported by Mr. Alfred Tongue, a cordial vote of thanks was given to the delegates for their interesting descriptive addresses.