International Vegetarian Union (IVU)
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Jayantilal N. Mankar (1895-1977)

IVU Vice -President 1955-77
IVU Regional Secretary for India and the East 1958-1977
photo right from the Souvenir book of the 1957 IVU Congess -

From the minutes of the meeting of the Executive Committee, held in Paris, France, 1954 May 1-2:

The secretary further stated that he had received an invitation to hold the 1957 Congress in Bombay but that the main IVU Congresses must be held in Europe out of loyalty to the nations who had built the IVU. He had however made tentative plans for a supplementary Congress to be held in Bombay to cater for countries of the Orient. This was receiving the support of Dastor Bode and local arrangements would be handled by the Bombay Humanitarian League which was a member of the IVU. The date to be late 1956 or early 1957. This plan was approved.

A notice from 'The Vegetarian World Forum' Autumn 1954:

IVU Announcement: In order to co-ordinate the work of vegetarian groups in the countries of the Orient and link them with the world vegetarian family the International Vegetarian Union has agreed to sponsor a Vegetarian Congress to be held in Bombay, India, probably February, 1957. Vegetarian groups and individuals willing to co-operate, especially those in far eastern countries, are invited to write to the Congress Organising Secretary:-
Mr.J.N.Mankar, The Bombay Humanitarian League, 149 Shroff Bazar, Bombay 2, India

From the minutes of the Business meeting of the 14th World Vegetarian Congress, held in Paris, France, 1955:

Congress for 1958: It was agreed that the next International Congress should be held in Germany.
Indian Congress: the Congress in India in 1957, organised by the Bombay Humanitarian League, was regarded as an additional Congress. [The 1958 German Congress did not go ahead and the Indian Congress became the first World Vegetarian Congress to be held outside Europe, despite the reluctance of the Europeans.]

The following additional Vice Presidents were elected:- . . . Mr.J.N.Mankar (India);

From The Vegetarian (UK VegSoc magazine) Jan/Feb 1957:

World Vegetarian Congress: The 15th World Vegetarian Congress to be held in Bombay, India, has been postponed from the month of February, 1957 to November, 1957, owing to the international conditions. It will be innaugurated by Dr. Rajandra Prasad, the President of the Republic of India.

The Congress is sponsored by the International Vegetarian Union, of 24 Binney Street, London, W.l., and the Bombay Humanitarian League and the All India Animal Welfare Societies. Mrs. Rukmini Devi Arundale, M.P., has been elected the President of the All India Reception Committee, and Shri. J. N. Mankar, the General Organiser.

From The Vegetarian Mar/Apr 1957:

Greetings from India
On behalf of the Bombay Humanitarian League, which is a pioneer humanitarian organization of India, we offer you and the members of your Society our sincere greetings and good wishes for the New Year and enclose herewith a Calendar for the year 1957, which will always remind us of the Cause and Cure for all the cruelties to animals and human sufferings. The innumerable animals which are subjected to torturous deaths are justified in exclaiming "Why kill for food when nature gives plenty of vegetarian diet." It is now for mankind, which has evidently grown too callous, to hear them and take to natural and humane ways of life, acquire health of body and mind and achieve the noble purpose of human existence.

The Bombay Humanitarian League being convinced right from its inception that main cause of cruelty and killing of animals is rooted in the palate and the stomach of mankind, lays great stress on the food reform movement in the positive form, by exposing the values of vegetarian diet. Though this has greatly helped to check the use of flesh foods, now becoming a part of civilized life of India, yet it has proved too feeble to stop the same effectively. At a time when considerate men and women of the Western countries have become conscious of the dangers of flesh foods and incidental and consequential cruelties, tortures and increasing blood thirstiness of the nations of the World, unfortunately fondness for imitating Western modes of diet and life, resulting in the use of flesh foods is increasing especially among the younger and educated generation. This calls for a strong coalition between humanitarians of the West and the East to free humanity from this misconception of life. We therefore cordially invite our Western friends to join us at the forthcoming World Vegetarian Congress to be held in India from 9th November, 1957, and make it an epoch making event and harbinger of real universal peace and brotherhood of all living creatures.

J. N. MANKAR. Hon. Secretary, The Bombay Humanitarian League, 149 Shroff Bazar, Bombay, 2.

From The Vegetarian May/Jun 1957:

President's Eastern Tour: We welcome back our widely travelled President, Mr. W.A. Sibly, M.A., J.P., [this refers to The Vegetarian Society President, but he was also Past-President of IVU] who has been touring the far East and was entertained in Bombay and Delhi by organizers of the World Vegetarian Congress in India. He congratulated the humanitarians of India on staging the November Congress in the home of vegetarianism,

right: Mr W.A.Sibly, M.A., J.P., [IVU President] in Delhi, with Mr A.L.Jindal, Secretary of the Delhi Vegetarian Society [background] - and Mr J.N.Mankar [on the far right]

YOU will be pleased to know that even after the decision to postpone the World Vegetarian Congress from February to November, 1957, enthusiasm for the Congress in India and abroad has not only continued but increased. The All India Reception Committee has been considerably enlarged. Several propaganda meetings in various parts of India are held and encouraging replies are being received from vegetarians and humanitarians of the countries of the world. The response from some of the Asian countries like Burma, Ceylon, Aden, Ethiopia, China and Japan is also very encouraging.

The Congress will be inaugurated on 9th November. 1957, by the President of the Republic of India (Dr. Rajendra Prasad) at Bombay where a three days' programme of lectures and cultural activities will be staged. The foreign delegates will then fly to Delhi, Patna, Calcutta and Madras for talks and similar programmes.

General Secretaries. 149 Shroff Bazar, Bombay, 2.

Minutes of the Business Meetings

Regional Secretaries: It was agreed that three Secretaries should be appointed to work in the following regions:- India and the East; America and the West; and in Britain for Europe and the North; under the direction of the Executive Committee. That funds should be allocated to the Indian and USA Secretaries for working capital.

Mr.J.N.Mankar gave thanks to the president and all the delegates who had taken part in the Congress. He also gave special thanks to Mrs.Rukmini Devi Arundale who had inspired and guided the reception committee, and to the many generous Indian hosts and hostesses.

above: Deputy President welcomed : Mr Oluf Egerod, of Denmark, Deputy President of I.V.U., when he was hreeted on arrival in India. With him are Mr Shah, Mr J.N.Mankar, chief organiser of the Congress, Mr Woodland Kahler and Mr Pattani.

from the Souvenir book of the 1957 IVU Congess:

on 9 May 1958, International Vegetarian Union, MEETING OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE

In accordance with the Resolution passed at the Indian Congress the following appointments were made:- . . . Hon Secretary for India and the East :- Mr J.N.Mankar

right: Jay Mankar at the IVU Congress in Germany 1960

The Bi-Annual Reports for the two years ended 31 December 1959 were given by the General Secretary (Mr Rudd) and the Regional Secretary for India and the East (Mr Mankar) and these were approved.

Vice Presidents (re-elected):- . . . Mr J N Mankar (India)
Regional Secretaries Appointed: . . .Mr J N Mankar (India and the East),

Quote: "You will know that, after all, the Government of India did not cancel the tiger hunt on the occasion of the visit of Her Majesty the Queen, though there was a good deal of opposition. We are very sorry to have to say that not only one but two tigers were shot by the Duke and his party, while many small animals were also shot by the Queen and her party. Apart from killing the innocent animals they have no doubt hit at the deep-rooted humanitarian sentiments of a large number of the people of India." - The British Vegetarian, March/April 1961

17th World Vegetarian Congress 1963, Barcelona, Spain

  • Delegate Report - Mr. J. N. Mankar, (Report of the Hon. Regional Secretary of India and the East)

    The Ambassador Hotel, The Hague, Holland
    Indian Convention: It was reported that Mr Mankar had arranged the first National Convention to open in the first week of January 1964 in Bombay and that a party of about 15 young European vegetarians had been invited to attend with free hospitality for two months during which a tour of India would be made. The General Secretary said that he has also received a pressing invitation but that he could not spare the time... he was asked to send greetings and good wishes for the success of the Convention.

    18th World Vegetarian Congress 1965, Swanwick, England

    The President read telegrams of good wishes from friends . . . one from the wife of Mr J N Mankar who was celebrating his 71st Birthday at the first Session
    Vice Presidents: Mr J N Mankar (India),
    re-appointed the Regional Secretaries: Mr J N Mankar (India & the East),

    NEXT CONGRESS A long discussion was held to decide an the country in which to hold the next Congress, the needs in particular were assessed for each region issuing invitations. Finally it was agreed that the next 1967 World Congress ( the 19th) should be hold in India and Mr Mankar assured prospective delegates that they would be given free hospitality during the period of the Congress, paying for only their fare to India and any internal travel. The General secretary said he would try to organize a Charter Flight from England, So that Europe would not be without a Congress for four years it was agreed that the 20th would to held in Holland in 1968.

    The Indian Delegates led by Mr. J. N. Mankar, arranged a whole session, and gave a series of most interesting talks - by Mr. Mankar, -Mr. Amrit Lal Jindal, Mr. Jay Dinshah and Mr. M. Somani.

    28 August 1965, 18th World Congress. The Hayes, Swanwick, England : Committee Meeting
    Present: . . . Mr Mankar (Sec for India)
    Indian Funds: Mr Mankar, Secretary for India & the east, said he had received 750 Rupees in affiliation fees from Indian Societies & it was agreed that such funds should be used for Congress expenses.

  • IVU World Vegetarian Congress, India 1967

    . . . with the skilful organisation led by Shri J. N. Mankar, the I.V.U.'s Regional Organiser for India and the East, the second World Vegetarian Congress sponsored by India was held from 18th November to 7th December, 1967.

Left to right: Smt Rukmini Devi Arundale, Shri Morarji Desai (Deputy Prime Minister of India), His Holiness The Dali Lama, Shri J.N.Mankar and Shri S.M.Mehta. Innauguration of the XIXth International Vegetarian Congress, Mavlankar Hall, New Delhi, India. November 18th, 1967.

Smt Rukmini Devi Arundale Speaking. Others, (left to right): Mr N.Nielsen, Shri J.N.Mankar, Professor Scott Nearing (U.S.A.), and the Rajkumar of Vizianagram.
"I particularly thank the Chief Organising Secretary of the International Vegetarian Union for India and the Far East - Shri Jayantilal Mankar - the un-tiring and devoted humanitarian without whose initiative, energy and enthusiasm, this Congress would not have been possible."

Group taken at the "At Home" given by the President of India, Dr.Zakir Husain, at his official Residential Palace, Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi. (Mr. Mankar front centre)

Quote: "It should be realised that vegetarianism is based on the sanctity of all life. It is not merely a question of filling one's stomach with this food or that. It is a question of humane instinct and humanising man to justify his more evolved position. Merely becoming a vegetarian, therefore, cannot achieve its basic objectives unless associated with love for life through animal welfare. It is the love-prompted compassion and not merely love for a vegetarian diet which can alleviate the soul and develop the true image of Man. - The Vegetarian Way," 19th World Vegetarian Congress, 1967

21st World Vegetarian Congress 1971, The Hague, The Netherlands

The above photo was from a Spanish magazine. Mr. Mankar can be seen at the back, 2nd left.

22nd World Vegetarian Congress 1973, Ronneby Brunn, Sweden

right: J.N.Mankar, Regional Secretary, International Union for India & East, in reflective mood. With him . . . Rukmini Devi Arundale, President of the Indian Vegetarian Congress,



23rd IVU World Vegetarian Congress 1975, Orono, Maine, USA

left: No Congress would be complete without them - Woodland Kahler, Marquis de St.Innocent, and Shri Jayantilal N.Mankar, Secretary of the Bombay Humanitarian League. . . .Mankar is IVU General Secretary for Asia and has long been a key figure in the Indian vegetarian movement. Both men are over 80, have been active in humanitarian work for a good portion of their lives - and neither shows any sign of flagging for a long while yet!


Hon.General Secretary's Report :
The Congress expresses its deep and sincere regrets on the passing over of our following colleagues:- Shri J.N.Mankar Hon.Vice President and Hon.Regional Secretary for India and The East - I.V.U. earlier this month. He was a "moving spirit" in the last three World Vegetarian Congresses in India in 1957, 1967 and now will have this Congress as his memorial as I am sure he would have wished it to continue.

We record with great loss the sudden death of Jay Mankar, Honorary Secretary of the International Vegetarian Union. Jay was one of the key organisers of the last World Vegetarian Congress held in India [1977]. He devoted the better part of his life to the cause of harmony and peace on Earth and was a true spiritual leader. - From the 'New Vegetarian' (Vegetarian Society UK) January 1978

Quote: Since all life is considered sacred, exploiting, killing and torturing animals is morally wrong and spiritually suicidal. Man as a superior being in evolution, endowed with powers of discriminating between right and wrong and conscious of his rights and responsibilities, is expected to do what is morally and spiritually right. It is in this respect that a highly evolved man differs from the less evolved lower animals. Man devoid of Dharma is nothing short of an animal. To be violent, to fight, to injure or kill animals for food, fashion, sports and science, or in the name of religion, are acts prompted by the instinct-guided behaviour of the animal, as were the acts of primitive man who was virtually an animal by his habits of life. But as man became more evolved, primitive man became more civilized and developed qualities of love, compassion and an instinctive urge for mutual aid. Man with these newly cultivated qualities developed a sense of humanity which created in him an awareness of humanism - i.e., the state of his being human - and he felt inclined to adopt a humane and natural way of life. The great Hindu law-giver Shri Manu has aptly said that "Man is not a man merely by being born as man. He has to be Man by leading a humane life. The extent of adoption of vegetarianism is an index of humanistic evolution of man. The vegetarian way of life is a culture medium of humanism and leads to psychological and spiritual evolution and higher ideals of life." - The Vegetarian Way, 24th World Vegetarian Congress, 1977